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Tuesday, 27 September 2011

How Does Bluetooth Work (Simplified)

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Bluetooth is a term well-known to almost everyone nowadays, here we shall quickly inspect the basic working principle of Bluetooth communication.

The communication between humans and between electronic devices is more or less the same. While starting a conversation with anyone, we need to know what language we will be speaking in and also need to make sure that we speak in a grammatically correct manner so that it makes sense. Similarly, when two devices need to talk, they have to decide on how they will talk (through wires or without wires,etc.), what is going to be their data transmission specifications (size,speed,etc), and many such technical aspects on which both devices have to come to an agreement before communicating. Bluetooth is essentially an agreement of this sort, technically known as anetworking standard’.

When a bluetooth device wants to exchange any information with another Bluetooth device, it first tries to setup a connection and then forms a little personal area network with it (like making an introduction to a stranger and then making him/her your friend). Most of the Bluetooth communication process works automatically through software. The user is asked to add Bluetooth devices to ‘trusted devices’ list and enter a security code to ensure that viruses or spam are not received onto the device.

 Bluetooth communication takes place between the radio frequency bands 2.4Ghz and 2.48Ghz (approx.), which has been set aside by Internationally for such purposes (Think of the band as a super wide Bluetooth highway with hundreds of lanes). The Bluetooth devices select around 75 frequencies from this band and keep changing the frequency thousands of times every second together (a process called spectrum frequency hopping), (imagine a high traffic road that have groups of cars going in a synchronised manner) Since the frequency changes thousands of times in a second, even if any interference happens from another Bluetooth device, it will only last for few microseconds. Such little interferences are overcome through built-in features in the Bluetooth software. Thus data is transmitted from one Bluetooth device to another effortlessly. Bluetooth usually has range in a 30 foot radius and transfers data at speeds around 3mbps. Bluetooth is highly energy efficient and uses only around 1milliwatt of energy during a transmission. 
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